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Ongoing studies



The importance of quantitative functional testing is very well established in the literature. This page lists just some of the studies available to demonstrate its value.

The importance of assessing function

Measuring patient function (as done by Vitrue EVVA) in addition to physiological assessment has been shown to be crucial to patient outcomes across multiple studies. Some of our favourite papers on the subject are included below:

  1. Reiman, M.P. and Manske, R.C., 2011. The assessment of function: How is it measured? A clinical perspective. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 19(2), pp.91-99.

  2. Thonnard JL, Penta M, 2007. Functional assessment in physiotherapy. A literature review. Eura Medicophys. Dec;43(4):525-41. PMID: 18084177.

  3. Carol M. Frattali,1992. Functional assessment of communication: Merging public policy with clinical views, Aphasiology, 6:1, 63-83, DOI: 10.1080/02687039208248577

Predictive power of functional tests

Return to sports

  1. Abrams GD, Harris JD, Gupta AK, McCormick FM, Bush-Joseph CA, Verma NN, Cole BJ, Bach BR Jr. Functional Performance Testing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2014 Jan 21;2(1):2325967113518305. doi: 10.1177/2325967113518305. PMID: 26535266; PMCID: PMC4555525.

  2. Culvenor, A.G., Collins, N.J., Guermazi, A., Cook, J.L., Vicenzino, B., Whitehead, T.S., Morris, H.G. and Crossley, K.M. (2016), Early Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis Features One Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Symptoms and Quality of Life at Three Years. Arthritis Care & Research, 68: 784-792.

  3. Hildebrandt, C., Müller, L., Zisch, B. et al. Functional assessments for decision-making regarding return to sports following ACL reconstruction. Part I: development of a new test battery. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 23, 1273–1281 (2015).

  4. Powell C, Jensen J, Johnson S. Functional Performance Measures Used for Return-to-Sport Criteria in Youth Following Lower-Extremity Injury. J Sport Rehabil. 2018 Nov 1;27(6):581-590. doi: 10.1123/jsr.2017-0061. Epub 2018 Oct 11. PMID: 29405808.


  1. Phelan EA, Mahoney JE, Voit JC, Stevens JA. Assessment and management of fall risk in primary care settings. Med Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;99(2):281-93. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2014.11.004. PMID: 25700584; PMCID: PMC4707663.

  2. Rogers, A. T., Bai, G., Lavin, R. A., & Anderson, G. F. (2017). Higher Hospital Spending on Occupational Therapy Is Associated With Lower Readmission Rates. Medical Care Research and Review, 74(6), 668–686.

  3. World Health Organization: Global report on falls prevention in older age. (page 26-33)[]

  4. NICE. Falls in older people: assessing risk and prevention. Clinical guideline. 2013.

Outcomes from surgery

  1. Goodman, S.M., Mehta, B., Mirza, S.Z. et al. Patients’ perspectives of outcomes after total knee and total hip arthroplasty: a nominal group study. BMC Rheumatol 4, 3 (2020).

  2. Timmers T, Janssen L, van der Weegen W, Das D, Marijnissen WJ, Hannink G, van der Zwaard BC, Plat A, Thomassen B, Swen JW, Kool RB, Lambers Heerspink FO. The Effect of an App for Day-to-Day Postoperative Care Education on Patients With Total Knee Replacement: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019 Oct 21;7(10):e15323. doi: 10.2196/15323. PMID: 31638594; PMCID: PMC6914303.

  3. Nicola Phillips, Michael Benjamin, Tony Everett, Robert W.M. van Deursen,
    Outcome and progression measures in rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament injury,Physical Therapy in Sport,Volume 1, Issue 4,2000,Pages 106-118,ISSN 1466-853X,

Difficulties in measuring function manually
  1.  Reiman MP, Manske RC. The assessment of function: How is it measured? A clinical perspective. J Man Manip Ther. 2011;19(2):91-99. doi:10.1179/106698111X12973307659546

  2. Sigward SM, Chan MM, Lin PE, Almansouri SY, Pratt KA. Compensatory Strategies That Reduce Knee Extensor Demand During a Bilateral Squat Change From 3 to 5 Months Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018 Sep;48(9):713-718. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2018.7977. Epub 2018 Jun 12. PMID: 29895231.

  3. Bohannon RW, Bubela DJ, Magasi SR, Wang YC, Gershon RC. Sit-to-stand test: Performance and determinants across the age-span. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2010;18(4):235-240. doi: 10.3233/IES-2010-0389. PMID: 25598584; PMCID: PMC4293702.

Improving patient engagement
  1. Grando M, Rozenblum R, Bates DW, eds. Information Technology for Patient Empowerment in Healthcare.Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter Inc.; 2015. ISBN: 9781614515920.

  2. Yee KC, Bettiol S, Nash R et al, 2018. How Can Information and Communication Technology Improve Healthcare Inequalities and Healthcare Inequity? The Concept of Context Driven Care. Stud Health Technol Inform. ;247:591-595.

  3. WHO, Patient Engagement: Technical Series on Safer Primary Care ISBN 978-92-4-151162-9

  4. Kakad M, Rozenblum R, Bates DW, 2017. Getting buy-in for predictive analytics in health care. Harv Bus Rev. May-June 2017;95:2-5.

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